The Biochemistry of Protein

The Biochemistry of Protein 

By Dr Daniel Rocha DN LMT CPT CNS 


Biochemistry studies proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, their synthesis, degradation, and functions in metabolism, heredity, and reproduction, and growth and maintenance of life. With advances in bioinformatics and human genomes sequencing, the biochemistry of each individual has its own unique characteristics and requires further research. 


Biochemistry major focus is the study of how the structures of proteins determine their functions. Function depends on the amino acid sequence of a protein, the correct folding, and various chemical modifications to the protein. 


Biochemistry includes nutritional science and studies of the digestion, absorption, and specific functions of the macronutrients, and micronutrients. The metabolic pathways by which enzymes convert carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins into energy, as well as the pathways by which amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids are synthesized and degraded, are studied. Bioenergetics pertains to the pathways for the transformation of molecules into energy, occurring in the mitochondria of cells through oxidative metabolism.


Studying biochemistry will assist a Naprapath when assessing a patient's connective tissue health and applying that to the overall health of an individual. Because naprapathy is a manual therapy, damaged tissue will require realignment and fascial release. Healing will be due to healthy vitaways, blood flow, lymph drainage, and nerve impulses. Protein is a macronutrient that will assist in tissue healing. 


Proteins are amino acid chains made up of 20 different amino acids. The order of the amino acids in a protein chain is specified by the order of the four different nucleotides in DNA and RNA. The DNA of each gene on a chromosome code for one protein. RNA translates the DNA code into the amino acid sequences of proteins and regulates the expression of genes. All of the proteins together in an organism make up its proteome, and all of the genes in an organism make up its genome.


Proteins include enzymes that catalyze or promote chemical reactions. Examples include amylase, urease, and alcohol dehydrogenase that detoxifies alcohol and converts it to sugars. Protein also include collagen and fibrin. Collagen provides structure and support to skin, tendons, bones, other tissues and organs. Fibrin forms scabs over wounds. Protein will contain carrier proteins that transport nutrients through the blood to all the cells of the body, such as hemoglobin that carries oxygen. Actin in proteins, help muscles contract. Channels and receptors in proteins enable chemical signals and small molecules to enter and exit cells. This includes the cells of the brain and nervous system. Hormones in proteins are chemical messengers that carry signals from the brain and other organs to regulate functions throughout the body. Examples include insulin, which regulates blood sugar, and growth hormone, which regulates growth and development. 


A peptide is a covalent bond formed by joining the carboxyl group of one amino acid to the amino group of another, with the removal of a molecule of water. These bonds are strong as they are partial double bonds, that do not denature by heat or high salt concentration. Only prolonged exposure to a strong acid or base at elevated temperatures such as digestive enzymes will cause denaturing. All peptides are composed of amino acids chemically linked together. Peptides range in size from dipeptides to polypeptides. The function of a peptide is determined by its size and amino acid sequence.and are considered transporters, enzymes, and hormones.


Peptides function as structural elements of the body. The peptides actin and myosin are structural components of muscle. Peptides contribute to bone shape and strength. Bone and muscle provide structure for the body, create movements for the body, and provide protection to internal organs. These biochemical structures are important in metabolism, cell regeneration, pain management.



Alic, M., Phd. (2018). Biochemistry. In J. L. Longe (Ed.), The Gale Encyclopedia of Nursing and Allied Health (4th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 470-475). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale. Retrieved from

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